Sunday, May 15, 2011

What Are Superfoods and Their Health Benefits?

One of the latest dietary promotions in the marketplace is that
of Superfoods, foods rich in vitamins and minerals that can help
people live longer, healthier, happier lives. Some Superfoods
plans list the top 10 foods in them; others promote 14, and yet
others have as many as around 37 listed to date.

Consider these other points about Superfoods and their health

1) On the whole, Superfoods are considered a group of wholesome
foods that are powerful for us, high in nutritional content and
antioxidants for more energy for us, also low in calories. They
also contain manganese, vitamin C, anthocyanins and dietary

2) Dietary experts mention these food groups among the
superfoods: tea, citrus, berries, cruciferous vegetables, green
stuffs, legumes, nuts, oats and whole grains, olives and olive
oil, fish rich in Omega-3fatty acids, orange vegetables, seeds,
soy, sea vegetables, turkey, tomatoes, yogurt and kefir.

3) Besidesgiving more energy, addition health benefits are said
to include protection from certain diseases and chronic ailments
like heart disease, Alzheimer's and cancer, and anti aging

4) The following list of foods has been on the superfoods list
over time, many among the top 10 lists:

- Acai berries
- Yogurt
- Avocado
- Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
- Watercress
- Beans
- Turkey
- Bilberry
- Blackcurrants
- Soy
- Quinoa
- Spinach
- Bee Pollen
- Pumpkin
- Broccoli
- Blue Green Algae
- Cacao, Raw chocolate
- Coffee Berry
- Chlorella
- Flax seed
- Maca
- Blueberries
- Noni Fruit
- Kale
- Oats
- Walnuts
- Oranges
- Raspberries
- Probiotics
- Rose hips
- Papaya
- Salmon, wild
- Spirulina
- Green Tea or Black Tea
- Tomatoes
- Wolfberries aka Goji Berries
- Yacon Root

5) Average daily servings of popular superfoods on a popular
dietary plan include an orange, one to two cups of blueberries,
about a half dozen servings of oats, a cup of tomatoes, half cup
of pumpkin and another of broccoli, a serving of soy, one of
spinach steamed or raw, tea plus weekly servings of beans four
times, salmon a couple times, turkey a few times plus some

6) After harvest time, Acai berries have a tendency to
deteriorate at a very fast rate. This happens due to the high
fatty content they have. While the acai berry can also be used
as manure, the berry actually consists of 80% seeds, seeds that
can even be ground and used to feed livestock.

After research was carried out on Acai berry, it was found that
100g of extract of the fruit contains a whopping 52.2g of
carbohydrates, 32.5g of fat, 44.2g of fiber and 8.1g of protein.
However, although the Acai berry is a fruit, it does not mean
that you can just pluck the fruit from the tree and start eating
it. The Acai berry has to processed in order to make it ready
for consumption purpose.

Here are some other benefits of enjoying products with acai in

• Fight off free radicals
• Increased energy levels and stamina
• Fight weight gain
• Improve your vision
• Cleanse and rid the body of infectious toxins
• Get help with digestion
• Boost the immune system

Acai has proven to have up to 10 times the antioxidants of
grapes and at least twice the antioxidant power of blueberries.
N fact, acai fruit is widely becoming well known as an
importance source of antioxidant anthocyanin, which has positive
effects on the cardiovascular system as well.

About the Author: Discover the amazing benefits of Acai Juice,
but don't be fooled - only drink 100% Acai Juice imported from
Brazil and get the best price at : and


Permanent Link:

Friday, July 9, 2010

Essentials of Great Digestion and Chinese Medicine

In Chinese medicine digestion is essential for good immunity and health. It is important to remember that it is not just what we eat, but also what we digest that matters for vitality. For a moment imagine your belly as a cauldron with a flame providing heat from bellow to break the food down so all the essential nutrients present can be absorbed. The strength of this metabolic process is dependant on the intensity of the fire. If our digestive fire is weak we are not able get what we need from our food. Furthermore, incomplete digestion results in metabolic waste known as dampness or phlegm in Chinese Medicine.

Here are a few guidelines to consider:

* Reduce or eliminate foods that are difficult to digest or are known allergies - particularly refined sugars and oils, dairy products, sweeteners and wheat products. Seeing as a bulk of the North American diet includes these items, it may take some work to find suitable alternatives. Good sweeteners include Stevia extract (found in most health food stores), rice syrup, barley malt extract and small amounts of maple syrup or natural raw cane juice sugar. Alternatives to wheat products include rye bread, rice cakes, oats, millet, corn or brown rice pasta. Alternatives to dairy products include organic soy, rice or almond milk, goat or sheep dairy and cheese.

* In general emphasize fresh, organic, lightly cooked or steamed vegetables. Small amounts of lean animal based proteins as well as legumes should be cooked thoroughly in stews or soups. Also include modest amounts of whole grains like brown rice or Qinoa, millet and oats for fiber.

* Avoid eating raw food particularly in winter. - Raw food is very cooling and can put out the digest fire when consumed in excess amounts. It is recommended to lightly steam or cook your veggies to preserve natural enzymes. Stews, gruels and soups are the easiest to digest.

* Avoid over eating or late night meals - As a rule eat to the point of being 2/3 full. Eating beyond this point will likely make you feel sleepy and sluggish. According to Chinese Medicine the digestive system is weakest at this time. If you can take your last meal 3 hours before you go to bed.

* When you eat, eat. Try to avoid distractions like TV, work, arguments, when eating. Take the time to enjoy your food and the company you are with.

* Tune into how you are feeling before and after eating - This will help you to make more conscious food choices. Rather than feeling guilty for eating too many sweets, just notice how you feel afterwards. Over time you will naturally want to eat foods that make you feel good, rather than being motivated by guilt or shame to eat better. Often food choices are driven by unconscious needs for gratification or comfort rather than a need for nourishment. Bringing these unconscious patterns to light will eventually dis-empower them.

* A note on food combining - Some basic guidelines of food: are to keep sugar and fruit separate from proteins during meal times. The more the complex the meal is with many ingredients and forms of protein the harder it will be to digest. Try to keep your meals simple as possible, emphasizing fresh veggies and lean or legume based proteins.

* Get out and move your body - Light physical exercise, particularly walking improves peristalsis and circulation aiding the digestion process.

* Wake up your GI system in the morning - Drink a cup of warm lemon water first thing in the morning a half hour before breakfast. This prepares your digestive system for your daily meals.

Useful Products

Probiotics - Probiotics create good intestinal flora which are essential for assimilating nutrients from our food. This is particularly important after a course of antibiotics. Acidophilus and spore based probiotics like B. laterosporus and L Sporogenes. Products like Nature's Biotics and Primal Defense eradicate yeasts and parasites. Natural Factors Double Strength (10 billion active cells) is also effective. Take probiotics before bed time or first thing in the morning.

Digestive enzymes - Digestive enzymes help assimilation of nutrition and reduce metabolic wastes. A full spectrum digestive enzyme is recommended to be taken with each meal.

Recommended Green Super Foods - Green super foods harmonize body acidity and are very cleansing. As well greens are high in essential nutrition which feed and restore normal cell function. Examples of useful greens include chlorella, barley grass, alfalfa, Wild Blue-green algae and Spirulina. Green food can be taken with meals 1 -2 times a day.

If you are someone who struggles with chronic digestive disorders and you live in Victoria BC consider booking a free 20 minute health consultation today to discuss how acupuncture and Chinese Medicine can help you - []Essentials of Great Digestion

Silas Rosenblatt, R Ac

South Island Stress Clinic

Article Source: [] Essentials of Great Digestion and Chinese Medicine

Tuesday, June 8, 2010

Natural Weight Loss Solutions - Green Tea, Apple Cider Vinegar and Spirulina

Nowadays, there are a multitude of products that claim to be total weight loss solutions. There are creams that supposedly can firm up the tummy, there are slimming belts, diet drinks, even soaps that supposedly can burn fat easily. In the midst of all these products, the healthiest option of course is to go natural. A good diet that is low in fat and in salt not only helps you lose those unwanted pounds, but can also lower your cholesterol level, improve your blood pressure level and keep your blood sugar at normal levels.

It is also important to take some vitamin and mineral supplements that can provide the nutrients that you may be missing when you are on a strict diet. Recently, there are also natural supplements that are manufactured from herbal products that do not just assist your body burn fats, but can also provide you some other health benefits, such as anti-oxidants that can improve your immune system.

Here are a couple of examples of herbal weight loss solutions that can help you beat the bulge, if taken on a regular basis:

1. Green Tea Extract

In several researches made over the years, people who took green tea either as a drink or as a diet supplement have reportedly lost weight faster than people who did not drink it. Aside from its fat burning properties, green tea is also full of rich antioxidants that can improve the immune system and can help the body build resistance against chronic diseases such as cancer, kidney disease and heart disease. It can also boost your energy level and can normalize or improve your metabolic rate.

2. Apple Cider Vinegar

Apple cider vinegar comes from fermented apples that contain a lot of nutrients such as pectin, calcium, potassium, and beta-carotene. Pectin can help lower bad cholesterol and lower blood pressure. Calcium can help fight osteoporosis as one gets older. Potassium is necessary to protect the body from toxins while the beta-carotene can protect the body from free radicals that can cause cell deterioration. Apple cider vinegar can help the body break down fat molecules which can eliminate excess pounds.

3. Spirulina

Spirulina is actually an algae that has now gained popularity as one of today's weight loss solutions. It is considered a "complete food", because of the high protein and other nutrients it contains. A regular dose of spirulina supplement taken about an hour before meals can make you feel full. It has a high percentage of beta-carotene which can insulate the body from degenerative diseases.

These are just three examples of healthy, natural weight loss solutions that can also provide other health benefits. It is important to understand however, that these are just supplements that go well with the right diet and proper exercise in achieving successful weight loss.


Mary Tanady desires to write articles since 3 years ago. Not only does this author love to write on the topic of weight loss, but also in beauty, dieting, fitness training and health. Visit her latest website on []polar f4 heart rate monitor which reviews about []heart monitor watches.

Article Source: [,-Apple-Cider-Vinegar-and-Spirulina&id=4298820] Natural Weight Loss Solutions - Green Tea, Apple Cider Vinegar and Spirulina

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

Blue Green Algae - A Brief Review of the Latest Research

Aphanizomenon flos-Aquae (A.F.A, a.k.a. Wild Blue-Green Algae) boasts a full range of vitamins, essential amino acids, and naturally chelated minerals. AFA is also an excellent source of vitamin B12, as well as Omega 3 fatty acids, which protect against heart disease and lower triglycerides.

Recent studies by the researcher Dr. Kilmer McCully have found that a shortage of the B-Complex vitamins (B-12, B6, and folic acid, which are abundant in AFA) can result in a build up homocysteine, a compound that contributes to heart disease and cancer. The excess homocysteine prompts the body to protect the arteries by building up a lining of cholesterol.

A study at the Royal Victoria Hospital in Montreal as long ago as 1998 suggested that eating Blue-Green Algae for a period of three months can help reduce cholesterol. To back this up, another study conducted recently at the Massachusetts General Hospital revealed that feeding Blue-Green Algae to rodents significantly decreased blood cholesterol levels.

The same study also found that eating this particular algae triggered the migration of 40% of the circulating Natural Killer (NK) cells from blood to tissue within 2 hours of consumption.

NK cells play an important role in the immune system. They are mainly responsible for finding and removing so-called "sick cells" that have become corrupted either due to a viral infection or cancerous disfiguration.

Other substances, such as green tea, are also known to enhance the activity of NK cells but until the above mentioned discovery on Blue-Green Algae, no dietary substance was known to prompt NK cells into this natural "house-keeping" action of migrating into the tissues to seek out and destroy "sick cells."

The wisdom of maintaining a diet that includes both Wild Blue-Green Algae and green tea, and this author's reasons for recommending it, should now be evident.

The study by the Royal Victoria Hospital included 50 healthy participants and results suggested that Blue-Green Algae can also help stimulate the production of red blood cells, probably due to its high content of vitamin B12.

Another study, performed in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, suggests that eating Blue-Green Algae boosts the brain. It finding is supported by the many reports - including that of the author of this article! - of increased mental alertness and concentration that follow from regular consumption of this Algae.

Finally, recently released preliminary data from Boston University suggests that regularly eating Blue-Green Algae may reverse the symptoms of essential fatty acid deficiency, specifically that of omega-3.

Essential fatty acids cannot be made by the body and need to enter the body via what we eat. They play a crucial role in the proper working of the immune system and their deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular disease, depression, some cancers, arthritis and skin problems.

Therefore, before you consume their poisons and damage your mental and physical health still further, those of you undergoing persuasions from the psycho-pharmacy racket to consume psychiatric chemicals so as to "manage" your "mental illness" should recognize that right here we have nutritional remedies that are safer and of infinitely greater long term benefit to you as a complete organism.

"Chuck the drugs and eat your grub" is the motto - as just this second coined by yours truly. For brain function and mood - mental health - as well as purely physical health, nutrition is a safe, more workable and, as is becoming increasingly evident, vital therapy that renders much of the psycho-pharmacy obsolete.

All this newly released data explains the many impressive benefits reported by people eating Blue-Green Algae on a regular basis. Having attracted the attention or researchers, ongoing studies are being done so as to fully understand the effects on the human body of eating Blue-Green Algae.

We now know that it may increase red blood cell production, reduce cholesterol, boost brain function and resolve essential fatty acid deficiency, not to mention strengthening your immune system.

The day is coming when Blue-Green Algae, hopefully alongside green tea as the beverage of choice, will be a routine supplement, much as Vitamin C so rightly is today, for people who want to be drug free and mentally and physically healthy.

For more information about the miracle super food, wild blue-green algae, go to now and order my FREE e-book that will tell you everything you need to know.

Article Source: [] Blue Green Algae - A Brief Review of the Latest Research

Friday, April 2, 2010

Top Six Natural Energy Boosters

Want an energy boost to your system that will not give you the jitters or keep you awake at night? Some herbs will boost your energy levels and are easy to add to your diet. Sometimes it is what you do NOT eat that gives you a boost in energy! So what are some alternatives to that third cup of Starbuck's Coffee?

1. Digestive enzymes break down proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fiber making it possible to benefit from the nutrients found in those foods. Enzymes turn the food we eat into energy and unlock this energy for use in the body. Did you ever notice that children can eat a big meal and then go play, but adults who eat a big meal usually need a nap. By the time you hit forty you have lost most of your body's natural ability to manufacture enzymes. You get tired because it takes a lot of energy to digest that meal. Where do we get enzymes from? There are two basic sources: The raw food we eat contains enzymes to help break down that particular piece of food. Our body also produces some enzymes. The two glands providing the majority of digestive chemicals utilized by the gastrointestinal tract are the liver and the pancreas. The more cooking and processing of food destroys all or most of the enzymes. The more diet consists of raw foods like salads, the more natural energy you will have. Since most of the foods we eat are cooked or heavily processed in some way and the raw foods we do eat contain only enough enzymes to process that particular food, our bodies must produce the majority of the digestive enzymes we require. Again, we also lose the ability to produce these enzymes after we reach forty. For these reasons it is recommended that we supplement our diet with enzymes. Many enzymes have also been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect which is a bonus.

2. Cayenne. There is no other herb which increases your blood flow faster than cayenne. Cayenne moves blood. It is a circulatory tonic and helps improve circulation. More blood means more oxygen racing through your body. This is just what your metabolism needed. Because it is a natural metabolism booster many diet supplements now add cayenne to their formulas. Cayenne also supports heart health, improves the immune system and is a huge aid to the digestive system.

3. Ginseng. Ginseng has long been used as a total systemic tonic. Ginseng is commonly used as an adaptogen, meaning it normalizes physical functioning depending on what the individual needs (for example, it will lower high blood pressure, but raise low blood pressure). It is also used to reduce the effects of stress, improve athletic performance, boost energy levels, enhance memory, and stimulate the immune system. Ginseng is known as a preventative herb as well as a curative herb. It is said to remove both mental and physical fatigue. Most people who use ginseng over a two to three month period experience a sense of well-being and stamina and say it improves both mental and physical performance. Ginseng has been said to improve erectile function, help relieve stress and help with stabilizing blood sugar levels for diabetics. It is a very common addition to any energy or diet product and comes in many shapes and forms. Like other herbs and supplements potency varies from product to product. I suggest always buying a fresh, reputable and potent brand.

4. 24 hour fast. The body spends up to one third of your energy on digestion and elimination. By avoiding solid food and only taking in liquids like water and fresh organic juices you give the body a break. It can now use some of its stored energy to fight disease and eliminate toxins in the body. By eliminating toxins the body is dumping them into the digestive tract to be eliminated. If the digestive tract (colon) is not clean and working well the toxins will just get reabsorbed into the bloodstream making you fell sick. If your colon is clean and you properly eliminate those toxins you get a general feeling of wellness, more energy and more mental clarity. Fasting, even just one day month will help eliminate salt and sugar cravings. After a fast you are usually hungry for food that has high nutrient content, like green vegetables..

Dr. Paul Bragg states: "... fasting is not a cure of any disease or ailment. The purpose of the fast is to allow the body full range and scope to fulfill its self-healing, self-repairing, self-rejuvenating functions to the best advantage. ...Fasting is probably the fastest and safest way or means of regaining health ever conceived by the human man. ... Fasting puts the body in a condition where all the Vital Force of the body is used to flush out the causes of body miseries."

5. Colon and parasite cleanse. If you are over the age of thirty and have never done a colon cleanse you are in for a tremendous health boost. If you do your cleanse and eat a healthy diet with mostly fruits and vegetables and very little red meat or no meat at all you will feel lighter. You will focus easier. Your memory will improve and your energy will go up. You will just feel better over all. You have probably heard the saying that death begins in the colon. Well, good health and more energy also begin in the colon!

6. Superfoods. Superfoods are foods or food products that are high in nutrient density. Superfoods are usually green superfoods, high in both vitamins and minerals. Why is a superfoods formula so important to natural energy levels?

One reason is that our soils are so depleted and over-farmed and we, as a country, elect to only replace the Nitrogen, Potassium and Phosphorus. These are the macro nutrients our foods need but not the micro-nutrients (trace minerals) which are essential to our energy and immune systems. Superfoods usually contain sea minerals from Blue-Green Algae, Spirulina, Kelp and Chlorella and other mineral dense foods that help to ensure that we are getting all the nutrients our body needs to fight disease and not run out of gas.

Article Source:

About the AuthorMarty Meshek is a natural energy and cleanse specialist and operates a natural healing web site filled with natural energy advice and products.

Superfoods Formula - 8 Key Components For a Healthier Mind and Body

By Billy Merritt

Health magazines and fitness gurus alike promote the importance of eating right. One of the most highly-concentrated forms of health food is the class of foods known as "superfoods." Ranging from fruits to plants to algae, a superfood is any product that has a high concentration of phytonutrients. Phytonutrients are plant-derived compounds that are known for their health-promoting benefits by researches and health food companies.

Examples of some of the most popular and readily-attainable superfoods include cacao (raw chocolate), blueberries, aloe vera, bee pollen, alfalfa sprouts, blackcurrants, avocado, and dark leafy greens. With all of these choices, how does one choose the best superfoods formula?

It is important that any superfoods formula contains a generous combination of the best superfoods available. Variety is important, since the right combination of foods can together fulfill an impressive range of the body's nutrition needs. At the same time, if the goal is to consume the foods together in a convenient, easy-to-prepare manner, a comprehensive formula is best.

Here are 8 key superfoods formula components for a healthier mind and body:

1. Greens: People often associate the word "greens" with vegetable products like spinach. However, several algae products are also known as greens because they contain large amounts of chlorophyll. These are spirulina, algae, chlorella. Algae products are typically grown in natural lakes. They thrive on sunlight and moisture, and when grown properly they become extremely nutritious foods.

Together, spirulina, blue-green algae and chlorophyll offer a rich range of health benefits, including large amounts of protein, phenylethylamine for the brain and nerves, and beta-carotene for eye and bone health. They also serve as important detoxifiers for the body and help rebuild tissues.

2. Herbs: Any trip to independent or chain health food stores will reveal a plethora of herbs available on the market. Herbs like stinging nettle and aloe vera are an excellent choice for inclusion in your superfood formula because they exhibit anti-inflammatory and adrenal-enhancing properties. Herbs are also soluble and mix up well in shakes and juice drinks.

3. Antioxidants: Antioxidants protect the body against free radicals, which are defined as any molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell. When these come into contact with healthy tissues such as skin and internal organs, they are believed to contribute toward aging. Suggestions for any strong health food formula with antioxidant properties are goji berries and mangosteen extract.

4. Sea vegetables: The ocean offers human a bounty of healthy foods, including fish-based products. But, a less well-known source of the ocean's nutrition are the sea vegetables, examples of which are Icelandic kelp and Nova Scotia dulse. They are packed with essential minerals needed by the body.

5. Essential fatty acids: Essential fatty acids include linoleic acid and alpha-linolinic acid. These are called essential because the body cannot produce them internally and they must be consumed directly. The term "fatty acids" may initially sound unhealthy due to health enthusiasts' aversion to anything with the word fat in it. On the contrary, however, fatty acids are an important factor in bolstering the immune system and in blood pressure regulation. A healthy intake of essential fatty acids can contribute toward cholesterol reduction and mitigate the risk of heart disease.

6. Probiotics: Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially-beneficial bacteria or yeasts. They are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Probiotics bacterial cultures assist the body's naturally-present gut flora to re-establish themselves. In terms of health benefits, probiotics contain immune system-building bacteria that ward off harmful bacteria.

7. Energetic enhancement: Some of the body's most important nutrients require catalysts in order to bring them to their most beneficial best. These energetic enhancement products, such as cayenne pepper and Himalayan salt crystals, act as catalysts in enhancing the digestion and absorption into the body of many of the other nutrients found in your formula.

8. Enzymes: Finally, enzymes are proteins such as protease, amylase, lipase should be included in any respectable superfoods formula. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy needed for a given reaction (such as digestion of a nutrient in the body), often increasing the reaction rates of common processes by millions of times. In terms of health benefits, enzymes act as cleansers that eliminate toxins that exist at the cellular level.

The superfoods formula you choose should have a healthy combination of nutrients from multiple sources, including algae, herbs, antioxidants, sea vegetables, essential fatty acids, probiotics, energetic enhancement, and enzymes. When you strike the right balance, you will have access to the kind of nutrition in one meal that can put you on the right path for the entire day.

Billy's Greens offers some of the best-tasting, healthiest superfood products anywhere, with ingredients sourced from the most nutrient-rich locations around the world. You can order right online at:

Article Source: [] Superfoods Formula - 8 Key Components For a Healthier Mind and Body

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Meal Replacement Weight Loss - Best Meal Replacements

By Norman Planck

The type of Protein?

The best meal replacement shakes and bar's will contain protein from a whey source, when examining the ingredients make sure whey protein isolate is the very first ingredient as this is the purest form of protein you will get without the lactose and fat. Soy protein isolate is also a good option for women. Anything with whey protein concentrates as its first ingredient you should stay away from.

What is the Carbohydrate Source?

When looking for the best meal replacement shake or bar first thing you want to look at is the amount of carbohydrates and where these carbohydrates are being sourced. Looking for a carbohydrate often referred to as zero impact carbohydrate. These are carbohydrates which have the least effect on your blood sugar and will not cause insulin spikes. This carbohydrate sources will come from low gi carbohydrate sources such as oats, waxy maize starch or maltodextrin, the meal replacement bar or shake may contain glycogen which is great for refueling your body after glycogen levels are depleted after exercise.

Meal replacement weight loss - Sugars?

Avoid fructose, sucrose, glucose containing meal replacement weight loss bars and shakes if you are looking to avoid sugar in general otherwise around 6- 10 grams of sugar is the usual amount. It is true that fructose the sugar from fruits are beneficial and are healthy to eat when they come from straight from fruits but when they are synthetically made or taken out of the natural fruit they are no longer a healthy sugar option.

When on a diet consisting of mostly shakes and bar's always try and give your diet some variety buy trying a few organic greens bar containing things like broccoli sprouts, dates, sesame seeds, dates, spirulina and other green foods. This will keep your body in an alkaline state and will also keep your skin healthy. People neglect there greens so its very important to make sure you don't overlook them.

Good luck with all your health goals, more information can be found at the []Diet Solution Guide, free ebooks and information to keep loosing weight and enjoying life.

More weight loss tips can be found at the []Weight Loss Instructor - Healthy recipes, meal plans, training routines and proven results.

Article Source: [] Meal Replacement Weight Loss - Best Meal Replacements